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Conveyors and Elevator Equipment

Belt Conveyors

Definition

Belt conveyors are the most commonly used powered conveyors because they are the most versatile and the least expensive.


Application

There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors. Those in general material handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport large volumes of resources and agricultural materials such as grain, salt, coal, ore, sand, overburden and more.
Product is conveyed directly on the belt so both regular and irregular shaped objects, large or
small, light and heavy, can be transported successfully.

Construction

Belt conveyors are generally fairly similar in construction consisting of a metal frame with rollers at either end of a flat metal bed. The belt is looped around each of the rollers and when one of the rollers is powered (by an electrical motor) the belting slides across the solid metal frame bed, moving the product. In heavy use applications the beds which the belting is pulled over are replaced with rollers. 
The rollers allow weight to be conveyed as they reduce the amount of friction generated from the heavier loading on the belting.

Screw Conveyors


Definition

A screw conveyor or auger conveyor is a mechanism that uses a rotating helical screw blade, called a “flighting”, usually within a tube or trough, to move liquid or granular materials.


Application

They are used in many bulk handling industries. Screw conveyors in modern industry are often used horizontally or at a slight incline as an efficient way to move semi-solid materials, including food waste, wood chips, aggregates, cereal grains, animal feed, boiler ash, meat and bone meal, municipal solid waste, and many others.


Construction

They usually consist of a trough or tube containing either a spiral blade coiled around a shaft, driven at one end and held at the other, or a “shaftless spiral”, driven at one end and free at the other. The rate of volume transfer is proportional to the rotation rate of the shaft. In industrial control applications the device is often used as a variable rate feeder by varying the rotation rate
of the shaft to deliver a measured rate or quantity of material into a process. 

 

Cake Breaker Conveyors

Definition

A cake breaker conveyor is used specifically to transport, separate and dry (fibres + kernels) that are by-products extracted from the Palm Oil Press during the production CPO.


Application

As mentioned above, cake breakers are used to separate fibres and nuts(kernels) along the length of the conveyor. This is achieved by the action of “throwing” the product forward with the use of paddles attached to a central shaft.


Construction

Similar in design to a screw conveyor, but with a series of “paddles” attached to the central shaft as opposed to a “flight”. This conveyor typically runs horizontally, over a length of between 15 and 25meters. To aid with the drying of the fibres, a steam jacket is often added to the outer trough.

 Bucket Elevators

Definition

A bucket elevator, also called a grain leg, is a mechanism for hauling flowable bulk materials (most often grain or fertilizer) vertically.

 
Application

A bucket elevator can elevate a variety of bulk materials from light to heavy and from fine to large lumps.

There are three common bucket elevator designs seen in bulk material handling facilities worldwide: 
1) Centrifugal Discharge Elevator 
Typically, this is the style of elevator used in grain handling facilities we are all familiar with along rivers, ports or on the farm. The elevator buckets discharge product freely by the use of centrifugal force.
2) Continuous Discharge Elevator
This style bucket elevator is used typically to discharge sluggish and non free flowing product where the elevator buckets discharge on top of each other. 
3) Positive Discharge Elevator
 Elevator design where the buckets are used to elevate commodities such as popcorn, candy and potato chips where the utmost concern is on gentle handling and finished food grade applications.

 

Construction

It consists of:
1.  Buckets to contain the material
2.  A belt to carry the buckets and transmit the pull
3.  Means to drive the belt;
4.  Accessories for loading the buckets or picking up the material, for receiving the discharged
material, for maintaining the belt tension and for enclosing and protecting the elevator.

Scraper / Drag Chain Conveyor

Definition

The scraper of drag chain conveyor system is used to transport dry or semi-dry bulk solids and powder.


Application

Material is fed into the pockets formed between discs inside of the conveying tube, or plates located within a square shaped trough and is pulled through until it reaches the outlet.


Construction

A single or twin chain is positioned inside a tube or rectangular trough. Scraper plates (round or rectangular) are fixed to the chains and aid in dragging the product along the length of the
conveyor.

Roller / Vibrating & Pneumatic Conveyors

 

Roller conveyors use a series of relatively closely spaced rollers, driven via chains or bands and are used to transport various items horizontally or at a slight incline.

Vibrating conveyors have a fixed base and a spring or rubber loaded body that oscillates to “throw” the product forward.

Pneumatic conveyors use pipes or ducts called transportation lines that carry a mixture of materials and a stream of air.

 

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